The Art of CNC Precision Machining

When an artist produces a piece of artwork, like a painting, it is a unique product which is part of its appeal and adds to its value. The artist may duplicate the painting but when it is done manually there are distinct variations in the final product that once again mean that even the duplicate is unique. The process of duplicating paintings through art prints made the copy a much closer representation of the original. The artist may have duplicated the first painting but the brush strokes used were not identical and the variation in motion control lead to a variation in the final product. Variations in artwork can be beautiful and necessary but in the world of machining beauty comes from the ability to exactly and precisely reproduce the final product and this can be accomplished through Computer Numerical Control for machining also known as CNC.

The role of machinist has changed radically with the introduction of CNC precision machining. Early machinists would make use of manual cranks, hand wheels, lead screws and a series of slides to perform the required cutting tasks just as an artist would use visual and physical control mechanisms to produce an artwork. In machining the key desirable outcome was and remains accuracy and reproducibility. CNC allows motion control for machining that is precise and able to be repeated over and over again without manual intervention while also increasing the safety of the operator. Although there is currently no known mechanical system that can reproduce the sophistication of the artist’s body at work, CNC has allowed significant advances in the machining industry.

Different machine types have different series of motions depending on the cutting tasks required but the method of motion control is fairly consistent in CNC. Each direction of motion is referred to as an axis and CNC machines can have two, five and even twelve axes and can either be linear or spherical depending on their application. The machines can manufacture high-tech components for use in the medical, aerospace and automotive industries from a range of materials including titanium, aluminium, copper, brass, alloys and high temperature plastics. CNC machines are involved in producing items such as nuts, inserts, threaded parts, pins, shafts, gears and fittings and can be produced in high volume in addition to high precision. The art of these processes lies not only in the final products but on the skill of the operator who programmes the CNC machines.

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CNC Machining – Using the Power and Precision of Machinery

CNC machining comes in many forms. Some companies need a part duplicated. Others need parts manufactured on a regular basis. However, some companies do not have the resources or the business levels to put in their own machinery. That is when bringing in a company that specializes in custom machining is a good business decision. They have all of the equipment and processes already in place to do the job. All the customer really needs to do is give them the information they need in order to start turning out the product required. It is important to find a company that is willing to work with your needs and to build an ongoing relationship.

If you need precise machining and accuracy, you might consider using CNC milling. This process uses digital automation integrated with CAD drawings to turn out precise parts. This integrated approach takes much of the guesswork out of the process. The machine takes measurements from the CAD drawing and sends it to the milling machine. The machine translates those measurements into precise motions for the milling machine. From there, the milling machine takes away all of the unnecessary materials to produce the final piece. If you need one part or many, this form of CNC machining will give you a part that meets the tightest specifications you can come up with.

If you have a project that requires rigid material, you need to consider CNC turning. Many of these materials have a higher cost than others do. In order to prevent waste and to keep costs down, using turning is a good way to do it. Some common materials used in CNC turning operations include bronze, sterling silver, titanium, brass, steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminum, Teflon, and PVC. CNC turning uses common tool shapes and precision tool moves in order to reduce costs associated with the material itself. In the right hands, this form of CNC machining can help you streamline and keep part development economical.

When it comes to flat surfaces such as plastic, chipboard, MDF, and plywood, CNC routing is the way to go. Routing allows for cutting, shaping, drilling, milling, and surfacing of these flat materials without wasting time or money. With the use of many different cutters, all of your cutting needs can be handled very quickly. This form of CNC machining can be done for a single part or for many over time.

For more information about Mechanical Engineering & CNC Machining

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What Is CNC Machining?

CNC machining is the process of milling and turning of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Whether it is aluminum, steel, brass, copper, iron, plastic or any other metal, you can get machining services online. This service provider also handles fine metals like gold, silver and platinum. They also look into precision sheet metal. This company has over 12 years of experience and they specialize in engineering. They also possess expertise in design, prototyping, reverse engineering and provide third, fourth and fifth axis milling and CNC turning. No job is too small for this company and they have a reputation for delivering on time, every time. Here is some more information to help you understand the exact type of services offered by this service provider.

Types of Services

CNC Machine shop: The CNC milling department has state of the art technology. It can machine any machinable material like stainless steel, carbon steels, alloy steels, delrin, ABS, G10, polycarbonate and nylon and the likes. CNC machining uses only the best software program and high-end equipment.

CNC turning: This department is equipped to handle precision turning requirements. No matter how complex your part is, you can expect a solution for your requirement.

CNC machine shop: This service provider also offers machining specialties in addition to the engineering services offered by them. In fact, many divisions with this service provider undertake different jobs. We shall discuss these divisions in detail.

Divisions

Machine shop: This division of the company services clients from all facets of life. Whether it is an individual, hobbyist, gunsmith, RC builder, craft maker, small business or engineers, everyone can order machining services from this service provider. It does not matter if you order one piece or 1000 pieces. Moreover, you can place the order from the comfort of your home through their online portal.

Military tooling: CNC machine shop also offers a wide range of military tooling for a variety of weapons systems including aircraft. They offer reverse engineering solutions and can supply parts and tools for a wide range of aircraft needs.

End to end solutions: This service provider not only offers CNC machining, they offer end-to-end solutions. For instance, the CAD design and engineering services provide a total design package from a prototype to a full-fledged product. They use the latest computer aided design software. Moreover, everything is done in-house to keep your expenses minimal.

This machine shop can also work on partially destroyed or worn out parts. They have an expert staff who can design the tool according to your specifications. Getting your job done from this service provider is easy because you do not have to visit the facility. Simply email them a 3D hand drawing with pictures and detailed descriptions. You could also send a physical sample if possible. They specialize in custom quality designs and promise to deliver on time. In fact, they have a fast turnaround time.

If you want to turn your idea into reality, then CNC machining is the best place to contact.

CNC machining is a technique that enables you to achieve engineering success. You can avail yourself of CAD designing and engineering services for your business needs. These services are offered online.

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CNC Machining Company

The manufacturing sector is one of the most important as it ensures the smooth functioning of other businesses. This sector uses different machining techniques. It includes manual and CNC machining. The latter is most preferred because of the benefits it comes with. CNC stands for Computer Numerical Control. CNC machining is basically the process used in the manufacturing sector involving the use of computers and computer programs to control machine tools. Some of the manufacturing tools that can be controlled include routers, mills and grinders.

Milling

CNC milling is precise with fast removing materials in three dimensions so that the desired part shapes can be achieved. The technology is precise and highly efficient, making it very popular. With this kind of milling, vertical, horizontal, bench top, face, bridge port, high speed and custom millings can be enjoyed. CNC services can handle all kinds of metals in addition to plastics.

Grinding

Precision machining uses surface grinding machines to cut tiny material amounts to create finest flat surfaces to tight tolerance. This helps makes accurate and absolute components. The different material types determine the precision ground part surface finishes that will be achieved. Angles, flats and radii on customs and components can be achieved with CNC grinding. The grinding process is however one of the most expensive in machining processes. The accuracy however makes it worthwhile.

Apart from CNC milling and grinding, other services that can be enjoyed include CNC turning, tapping and CNC cutting. EDM wire cutting services is another type of service offered here. The EDM services are important in manufacturing to achieve close tolerance for small part batches and components.

The Benefits of CNC Machining

CNC machining can handle different kinds of materials, including metals and hard plastics. It can work with aluminum, iron, stainless steel, copper, carbon steel, bronze, brass, sterling silver, titanium, acrylic polystyrene, carbon fiber, fiberglass, nylon and Acetal as well as polycarbonate among other materials.

The process offers precision machining which can be hard to achieve with manual kind of machining. This makes it possible for all kinds of shapes to be achieved for different manufacturing needs.

This process makes it possible to produce complex shapes that are impossible with manual machining. They include 3 dimensional shapes required in different manufacturing fields. Any business will find the machining effective enough to achieve the desired results.

With CNC machining, the same processes in milling or grinding or any other service can be repeated over and over again to get shapes and components that are exactly the same. It eliminates errors and reduces the work volume significantly compared to manual machining.

Best Service

When looking for precision machining, always look for a provider who has a wide variety of services to offer that will cater to your manufacturing needs or requirements. Efficiency, skills and customer service are some of the other considerations you can make when choosing a company. Consider the service pricing as well to get high quality that you can afford.

CNC machining companies can be of great help and the technology has its own list of benefits. Please click the link given below to find out more about CNC machining www.cncmachinings.com

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How To Find Precision Prototype and Production CNC Machining

If you are looking for prototype & production CNC machining in general, you are open to a variety of options. Many metal fabricators are offering prototype production by use of CNC machining which is a process of metal fabrication. Their precision in getting it done is what has amused most of their customers.

Metal fabrication is an art that involves the creation of metal structures or machines through the processes of cutting, bending and assembling. This involves a variety of raw materials which range from different kinds of metals depending on the final piece to be achieved. All these processes involve their own individual procedures before the structure can be properly built or assembled. Basically there are many standard raw materials that are used by metal fabricators. These include: plate metal, expanded metal e.g. square or tube stock, welding rods, castings, fittings and hardware.

Fabricating sheet metal to meet desired objects that meet the market needs requires the right tools and processes. One of such processes would be the CNC turning. This is a cutting process that involves production of parts by feeding a cutting tool to the turning material. In protocol & production CNC machining, the material to be cut is fitted on a lathe where it’s in constant rotation as a cutting tool is fed onto the rotating work piece. In producing various shapes, the cutter is fed onto the work piece in a variety of angles or axises.

Considering its ability to produce perfectly symmetrical objects under the axis of revolution, it is considered economical in the metal fabrication process. The turning costs can as well be optimized to make ensure a more economical working process. This can be made possible through:

  • reducing the complexity of the process,
  • minimizing on the materials being removed and
  • Avoiding complexity in the shapes being created. Long thin shapes for example would be very difficult to produce.

The process involves the turning of a couple of rigid materials like: aluminum, copper, stainless steel, nylon, steel, polycarbonate, acetyl, bronze, etc. All these materials are able to produce different shapes but with the varying difficulty levels due to their different densities. For Prototype & Production CNC Machining, some of the shapes that could be made are: taper, plain, fillet, contour and threaded surfaces plus radius profiles. To allow for more flexibility in the cutting process, the axis of revolution can be increased from one to multiple settings as in a camshafts. It is notable that with yet another combination of the CNC milling, this machining method is able to produce more diverse shapes.

CNC turning is known to produce the following common parts: shift knobs, robot parts, auto parts, pulleys, hubs, shafts, flywheels, motorcycle parts, toy parts, bushings, etc. In producing these parts, one has to be very considerate of the design process. Considering that the turning process applies a lot of pressure on the material, weak shapes that may involve flexing would be difficult to produce. For example this would be the case if long thin structures were used. The turning process generates a cut surface with helical marks resulting from the rotational feature as the cutter grinds on the material. With a specified surface roughness, the turning process is able to produce whatever marks you are particularly interested in. It is however worth noting that if the ratio of the diameter to the depth is high, bored holes become difficult.

In the past, traditional lathes were used which required constant supervision, but with the modern age computer numerical control turning (CNC), the automated lathe allows for accuracy and less supervision. Prototype & production CNC machining not only comes with the turning process but various other fabrication processes e.g. milling. Generally, the CNC turning process is among the most basic of the machining processes.

See prototype & production CNC machining in action and find out how we can help you design and build the parts you need with our 5 Axis CNC Machines. So lets get started now!!

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How CNC Turning Machines Can Help Manufacturing Business

Do you know what actually CNC machining is all about? CNC, an acronym for Computer Numerical Control is a process used especially in the manufacturing industries that involves the computer use for handling machine tools. CNC machining is the practice of milling and spinning of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. There are online machining services for brass, iron, copper, plastic, steel, aluminum or other metal. Fine metals including silver, gold and platinum are also handled by the service providers. They have an in-depth precision of sheet metal.

Today, CNC turning machines are the most efficient tools available for manufacturing industries using which manufacturers can expand their business. Using this technology in manufacturing can give lots of advantages.

Keep ahead of the competition- In the everyday competitive market, manufacturing business is quite challenging for both a new and old one. CNC machining is commonly popular as computer controlled, since they’re extremely expert at producing than outdated common systems. If you have a manufacturing business and looking for large agreements or contracts with other organizations, remember you have the innovative technology to fulfill the demand and need.

In a CNC machine, there are CNC machining parts which are used for different purposes like drilling, cutting, milling, routing, or anything that works on materials like metal and wood. CNC machines can be used to build accurate forms and shapes using the automatic system from the computer. Using CNC machining parts, raw materials in the machine are processed, and are given different forms by shaping them through cutting tools. Cutting tools, control panel, axis, coolant supply tube, table, and spindle are a few of the CNC machined parts. The CNC processes help in saving lots of time, money and efforts of the business as they are automated.

Manufacture with accuracy- Manual turners and millers can use CNC turning machines to do extremely better. The turning and milling process can vastly grow your business prospects when handled by computer. The industries such as healthcare sector that have extremely complex and precise designs need parts that are perfect. Using this new technology, one doesn’t have to worry about the possibility of individual flaw.

Increase profit and reduce efforts- CNC turning machines are a bit expensive, but getting it is very beneficial. This machine will not only reduce the production cost, but also time and effort. CNC is actually quite time-consuming and thrift technology through the edges. If you’re planning to buy the machine, make sure the device is right and works error-free. It can be indeed a real selection for boosting the production.

Cut down the expenditure cost- Dropping the consuming cost is surely one of the major benefits. Manufacturing engineering companies fritter away huge amounts of money annually on wastage, because of the individual error. This way expenditure can be reduced and thus increasing the benefits.

Improved Efficiency- Without any doubt, CNC machines are one of the most efficient means of producing an element due to the fact that most include internal quality assurance detectors. With the great speed of production and best raw material usage, along with its efficiency, it’s obvious to see why CNC machining is a remarkable standard of metalworking and part fabrication.

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Continuing Education For Architects and Engineers in Wood Preservation

Untreated wood left exposed to outdoor conditions becomes susceptible to decay and degradation by natural forces. While some species of trees have some degree of natural resistance to decay most of the commonly used species do not. Therefore wood left exposed to the elements should be protected against decay and destructive insects by applying chemical preservatives. Several factors influence the degree of protection that can be achieved with chemical preservatives, including the species of wood being treated, the type of chemical being applied, the method of application, the degree of penetration of the preservative into the wood and the length of time the chemical is retained in the wood.

Wood preservatives are a type of pesticide, and as such their use is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. Certain preservatives are available for use by the general public while others, referred to as “restricted use” preservatives, are only available for use by certified applicators. Wood products treated with restricted use preservatives are not considered toxic by the EPA and their purchase and use is not regulated by the EPA. Consumers may obtain EPA approved Consumer Information Sheets from retailers for more information about different preservatives and the proper disposal of treated products.

There are three general types of exposure categories for wood preservatives, including ground contact, above-ground contact and marine exposure. Products exposed to ground contact conditions are highly susceptible to decay and require a heavy-duty preservative, usually applied through pressure-treatment. Products exposed to above-ground conditions are less susceptible to decay and are usually treated with non-pressure-treatment methods. Wood products exposed to under-water or marine environments are extremely susceptible to decay and require heavy-duty preservative treatments.

There are two general types of wood preservatives, including oilborne preservatives and waterborne preservatives.

Oilborne preservatives include, among others, coal-tar creosote, pentachlorophenol solutions, copper naphthenate, chlorothalonil, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, oxine copper, zinc naphthenate, alkyl ammonium compound, propiconazole and tebuconazole. These chemicals are use in pressure-treatment methods and each has different uses, restrictions, benefits and hazards associated with them. Oilborne preservatives can also have an effect on the color, odor, paintability and fire protection attributes of the treated wood. While some of the volatile solvents may be removed after treatment doing so may adversely affect the degree of protection.

Waterborne preservatives have less of an objectionable effect on wood surfaces in terms of cleanliness, odors and paintability than oilborne preservatives. There are numerous variations of waterborne preservatives, including acid copper chromate, ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate, chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper quat, ammoniacal copper citrate, copper azole and inorganic boron. As with oilborne preservatives the different waterborne preservatives each have different uses, restrictions, benefits and hazards associated with them.

The effectiveness of a preservative is dependent upon several factors, including the protective value of the chemical used, the method of application, the penetration and retention of the preservative, the proportion of heartwood to sapwood of the product and the moisture content at the time of application. The effectiveness of treatment is also very dependent upon the species of wood as the level of penetration into heartwood varies greatly by species. In general, the penetration into heartwood is greater with softwood species as opposed to hardwood species. Timbers should be properly prepared before treatment. This includes proper peeling, seasoning or conditioning and machined.

Preservatives are applied using either a pressure process or a non-pressure process. In pressure processes the wood is impregnated with the preservative chemical in closed vessels under very high pressure. In non-pressure processes the preservative is generally applied to the surface of the product in one of several different ways.

Pressure processes include the full-cell, or Bethel, process, the modified full-cell process and the empty-cell process. The full-cell process entails sealing the product in a treatment cylinder, inducing a vacuum, introducing the preservative and then applying pressure for a period of time until the desired penetration is achieved. The modified full-cell process is the same as the full-cell process with the exception that a final vacuum may be induced at the end of the process. The empty-cell process is one in which pressurized air is first forced into the treatment cylinder, followed by the introduction of the preservative. As the preservative is forced in the pressurized air is allowed to escape, keeping the pressure in the cylinder constant. After the cylinder is completely filled with preservative the pressure is increased until the wood will not absorb additional preservative. At this point the remaining preservative is drained from the cylinder and a vacuum applied.

Non-pressure processes generally consist of surface applications, soaking and steeping, diffusion, and vacuum processes. Surface applications, through brushing or dipping, are the simplest methods of applying preservatives. Soaking wood products for hours or days in preservative oils or steeping in waterborne preservatives is also widely used. Diffusion is a process in which the product is first steeped in one preservative chemical and then in another, allowing the two chemicals to react. In the vacuum process the product is placed in a treatment cylinder, an initial vacuum is induced, the preservative is introduce under vacuum, the vacuum is released and the product is allowed to soak for a period of time, after which another vacuum is induced to remove excess preservative.

Architects, engineers and construction contractors should be well versed in the types of wood preservatives, their uses and application methods. The study of wood preservatives is an excellent topic for the continuing education requirements of these professionals. More information is available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service.

References: Wood Handbook – Wood as an engineering material, Forest Products Laboratory, 1999.

Will Guidry is a registered architect, Java program developer and author of continuing education courses for architects, engineers, interior designers and landscape architects. You can find his courses at CEU-HQ.com.

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Shower Plumbing

How To Install Shower Plumbing

Shower plumbing is the plumbing activities required for the showers in your toilet. The main two shower plumbing lines are the water supply line and the drainage line. Showers are the common thing we can see in every toilet, after a long day of work everybody wants to get freshened; showers are the first thing which helps you to get freshened. The cold water system is made of the copper pipes and fitting; proper insulation of the copper pipes is necessary for the better performance and otherwise the breakage of the pipes may rise in the cold conditions. Shower plumbing for the drainage system commonly use the plastic pipes or pvc pipes for the waste water removal. When the pipes get old, the chances of crack or fracture increase when we step on to the shower floor. The leakages in the drainage can only be done by removing the shower floor from the shower unit. The water leakage in the pipes is the main common faults that we can see in the shower water line. The leakage may be in shower head, shower handle or the diverter the push button in the unit for water release.

Showers in the building have both hot water and cold water system which is connected to the building water system. The hot water system connects to the common hot water system from the water heaters. In every building the faults in the showers are common one. We cannot deal most of the problems and the assistance of the qualified plumber needed for bringing to the normal working. Shower plumbing repair works can be easily done with the help of the plumbers even though some smaller works in the shower plumbing can be done by us. Shower clogging is the most common thing that we can see in the units, the first thing that we have to do is to remove the shower cap and check for any kinds of debris or hair particles. If the clog is not cleared we have to check deep to the pipe line for any kind of debris that blocked in the pipe.

Several showrooms are in the market from where we can purchase the shower units for your house. Shower units are available in different sizes for best fit to the bathrooms in your house. Top end decorative models from the supreme brands are also available from the market to make your bath room a graceful look. Shower plumbing installation can be done with the help of the qualified plumbers. Ultramodern fully automatic and electronically controlled models from the manufacturers are becoming the new trend in the market. These models are not only looking on just for cleaning but also for giving a new experience to the users. The new models consist of a number of electronically controlled water nozzles fitted in the different points in the shower units. Certain top end models are also uses back ground music for a wonderful experience to the users.

The author is an SEO copy writer and internet marketing specialist. To know more about Boiler Repair Bayswater W2 and Boiler Repair Belgravia SW1 visit atplumbing andheating

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Signs of Aging Plumbing

Spot the Warning Signs of Aging Plumbing

Learn to identify the signs of aging plumbing by examining your water quality and being on the lookout for pinhole leaks and pipe corrosion. While it is a costly project to install new piping throughout a home, it is even more expensive to repair water damage and broken pipes.

What Type of Pipes Are In Your Home?

The age of your home will most likely determine the condition of your pipes, along with the type of piping material. Brass pipes can last 40 to 70 years, copper pipes can last more than 50 years and galvanized steel pipes can last from 20 to 50 years. It’s important to note that the time frames are completely subjective. For homes located in regions with hard water, pipes may break down much sooner than expected, as the high calcium and magnesium levels cause scale deposits to form inside pipes, and eventually cause clogs.

If your pipes are made of lead, you must completely replace each one as soon as possible. Though lead pipes have a life span of up to 100 years, the compound can poison your water supply. If your pipes are made of polybutylene, a popular piping material choice in the 1970s, your plumbing is at high risk for breakage. Polybutylene is inexpensive, but has proven unable to handle long-term contact with water treatment chemicals such as chlorine.

Observe Water Quality and Usage

Pay attention to the taste and color of your water. If you spot orange-tinted water in any bathtub or sink drain, it could signal pipe corrosion. Pipe erosion is inevitable – high-powered water flow will eventually wear down any pipe. However, pipe corrosion occurs when the water chemically reacts with the pipe’s makeup, eating away at its interior and causing premature disintegration. Corroded pipes not only give water an unpleasant taste, but could cause the water to pose a serious health hazard when ingested. Corrosion is a clear indication of outdated, unfit plumbing systems.

If you notice a recent water bill increase even though your normal routine has not changed, this could be a sign of a pipe leak. Even the smallest leak can create widespread water and mold damage, and if it goes undetected it may worsen. Experienced plumbers can use techniques to pinpoint the source, replace the leaking pipe section and search out any other weak spots in the system.

Inspect Exposed Piping Regularly

Two obstacles work against homeowners who are dedicated to keeping their plumbing functioning properly. First, new homeowners may not know if the pipes were well-maintained by the previous property owner or what previous plumbing issues, if any, existed. Second, plumbing lines are commonly hidden from view inside walls and ceilings.

Homeowners can obtain a copy of the home inspector’s report conducted before the sale of the property to discern the age and type of pipes in the home and if any plumbing concerns were noted. They can also inspect the sections of exposed piping, such as those located in a garage or crawl space, for signs of flaking metal or rust. If small leaks are popping up in the visible sections, other pipes may be experiencing the same problems. In this case, it’s time to call a plumber who can diagnose any concealed plumbing problems.

For experienced advice on the current state of your pipes, schedule an inspection with a trusted local plumber who can thoroughly assess if your home is showing signs of aging plumbing in need of repair or replacement.

Jill Smith is a writer and researcher. She is the Director of Digital Content Marketing for Be Locally SEO where she enjoys helping clients expand and improve their businesses through articles, blogs, website content and more.

Ed Garner Plumbing in Salt Lake City, Utah is your expert plumber in residential and commercial applications. Call them today to see if your aging plumbing needs a makeover.

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Home Plumbing and Heating

Home Plumbing and Heating Working With Copper Pipe

Copper pipes and piping is one of the most ubiquitous and widely used pipes used in plumbing and heating systems and retrofits. Copper may be more expensive and harder to work with than plastic PVC pipes yet at one time or another you are going to encounter it as a home handyman plumber or heating trades person in your property upgrades, repairs and renovations so you had better had some skills and tools to work with copper. It is only a matter of time, experience and projects.

Cutting copper pipe or tubing without kinking it takes great care and even practice. So it makes good sense to do your best to avoid sawing copper pipe if possible.
Plumbing and heating technical instruction teachers will advise it is always the best route to use a tubing cutter instead. Of course the tubing cutter will be of little use on the larger-sized copper pipes. For those regardless you simply must use a hacksaw, but be sure to equip the hack saw with the finest-toothed blade you can find, or ultimately may have to purchase in a hardware or plumbing furnace heating supply outlet.

Saw as straight as possible – using a miter box will help to obtain a square cut. Eliminate any irregularities on the edge – as well as any burrs inside and as well as out with the use of a file.

If you find that in your work on your home plumbing renovation or upgrade project that you must put the copper pipe in a vise to hold it while you saw, clamp the vice on the pipe as far as humanely possible so that you do not unintentionally dent the end of the tubing or pipe. In the end it can be said that for your attention and care to the project that if you do not have the most perfectly round pipe with a perfect and exact round end you can be assured 100 % that your finished end will not connect well – if at all – to another section or sections of pipe, tube or piping.

Lastly it can be said that in the process copper pipes and tubes can be joined in several way and means. Sweat-soldering is the most common, widely used in the plumbing & furnace heating trades and is certainly the method with the least expense of time and cost involved. However an alternate method of joining copper pipe – “flare fittings” and “compression fittings” are employed and used mainly for flexible rather than rigid type copper piping. Good luck with home reno projects.

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